Pope Francis and His Appointment of 21 New Cardinals

Pope Francis

On the 30th of September, 2023, Pope Francis initiated 21 clergymen into the College of Cardinals, an integral part of the Church’s governing structure. This consistory, or assembly of cardinals, has been the ninth since Francis assumed the papal role in 2013, following the retirement of Pope Benedict XVI.

Pope Francis Transitioning from 221 to 242 Members

With these new appointments, the College’s membership has increased from 221 to 242, encompassing members both active and retired. Pope Francis has prioritized inclusion, ensuring that the College is representative of the global diversity within the Catholic Church.

Historical Background and Role of Cardinals

As a scholar of medieval Christianity, I’ve delved into the complex history of the College of Cardinals. This significant institution, which has evolved over time in response to various challenges, plays a pivotal role in deciding the future leadership and policies of the Catholic Church.

From Early Church Leadership to the Papacy as a Political Prize

During the era of the Roman Empire, when Christianity was yet to be legalized, Christians congregated in secret meetings, often held in house churches. Over time, the leadership of these communities evolved into three primary orders of ordained clergy: bishops, priests, and deacons. However, with the spread of Christianity and the increasing political influence within the Church, the papacy became a coveted political prize, leading to a series of unworthy popes and contributing to the increasing political power of cardinals, traditionally the popes’ closest advisers.

Vatican II and Recent Developments

In more recent centuries, the College of Cardinals has continued to evolve, with modifications to the number and selection of cardinals implemented in the 20th and 21st centuries. Popes have also underscored the universality of the Church by appointing several new cardinals from across the globe, leading to a marked increase in the size of the College.

Cardinals and the Future of the Church Under Pope Francis

Under Pope Francis rule, the composition of the College of Cardinals has been profoundly influenced, with many believing his appointments are aimed at preserving his vision for the Church’s future. However, this has led to tension, with some conservative Catholic bishops and cardinals criticizing Francis’ divergence from traditional teaching. Regardless of the outcome of the next papal election, the College of Cardinals will undeniably play a pivotal role in shaping the future of the Church.


In conclusion, Pope Francis recent appointment of 21 new cardinals marks a significant moment in the history of the College of Cardinals. As the Church continues to evolve and address current challenges, it is imperative that the College remains representative and inclusive to ensure effective governance and decision-making. The role of cardinals will continue to be crucial in shaping the future direction of the Catholic Church. So, it is essential to closely monitor any developments within the College and their potential impact on the Church as a whole.